State Affirmative-Action Programs and Proposition 209

California voters approved Proposition 209 in November 1996. Proposition 209 barred state and local governments — but not the federal government — from granting preferential treatment to any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, ethnicity or national origin in the operation of government hiring, contracting and education. Despite Proposition 209, many affirmative action programs remain in effect pending court challenges to Proposition 209.

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